Danielson Full

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“Look Fors and Listen Fors” in Components of Charlotte Danielson’s Framework for Professional Practice


Domain 1:  Planning and Preparation


Component 1a:  Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy

  • Knowledge of content and the structure of the discipline
  • Knowledge of prerequisite relationships
  • Knowledge of content-related pedagogy

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Lessons based on current best practice
  • Advanced courses in content and techniques
  • Instructional artifacts (evidence in the form of student work products with comments)
  • Instructional interactions with students


Component 1b:  Demonstrating Knowledge of Students

  • Knowledge of child and adolescent development
  • Knowledge of the learning process
  • Knowledge of students’ skills, knowledge, and language proficiency
  • Knowledge of students’ interests and cultural heritage
  • Knowledge of students’ special needs

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Inventories, surveys and communications to families are used to gather information about students at the beginning of the year.
  • Uses school records, i.e. test scores, permanent records, IEP’s etc. as primary sources of knowledge of students.  Uses secondary sources such as conversations with prior teachers and other school personnel.
  • Class description that appropriately classifies students by learning abilities and other indicators (2nd language, other ethnic-cultural issues, special needs – both medical, social and educational)


Component 1c:  Setting Instructional Outcomes

  • Value, sequence, and alignment
  • Clarity
  • Balance
  • Suitability for diverse learners

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Goals are age/level appropriate
  • Goals are suitable for diverse learners
  • Goals = what students will learn as opposed to lesson objectives which = what students will know, understand, and be able to do
  • Goals can be assessed



Component 1d:  Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources

  • Resources for classroom use
  • Resources to extend content knowledge and pedagogy
  • Resources for students

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Resources to assist teaching and/or help students, i.e. texts, instructional aids, field trips, experts from community, programs/experiences, technology
  • Knowledge of a range of resources, services and aids


Component 1e: Designing Coherent Instruction

  • Learning activities
  • Instructional materials and resources
  • Instructional groups
  • Lesson and unit structure

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • In Unit Plans – at least three weeks with daily topics and activities that reflect organization and sequencing, and variety of materials and groups
  • In Lesson Plans – description of students, instructional objectives, assessments, activating, cognitive, and summarizing strategies, materials, and potential misunderstandings
  • Grouping patterns with a student focus:

Low – teacher or student leads large group, students work in small groups while teacher circulates; students work alone, teacher monitors

Moderate – teacher works w/ small groups; students work alone or in small groups

High – student lead presentations or other leadership roles within a structured lesson


Component 1f:  Designing Student Assessment

  • Congruence with instructional outcomes
  • Criteria and standards
  • Design of formative assessments
  • Use for planning

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Methods of assessing each goal:  tests, data analysis, production of findings, collaboration
  • Scoring systems/rubrics establishing measurable criteria are communicated up front
  • Authentic, real world applications are evident
  • Feedback to students guide next steps, i.e. teaching or re-teaching






Domain 2:  The Classroom Environment


Component 2a:  Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport

  • Teacher interaction with students
  • Student interactions with other students

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Teacher establishes relationships with each student
  • Teacher shows an appreciation for each child as an individual
  • Teacher provides opportunities for students to get to know and accept each other
  • Teacher establishes (with students) and communicates classroom procedures and rules
  • Teacher encourages students to take intellectual risks and be creative
  • Words and actions of the teacher demonstrate this skill
  • Teacher plans for respect and rapport by creating an environment conducive to :

FUN – creating lessons and activities that students enjoy

FREEDOM – provide choice (cognizant of audience); teacher remains the Captain

POWER – feeling of value, students matter and contribute; recognition of talents and skills

BELONGING – caring/community of learners

SURVIVAL – doing what must be done to get what you want; compelling motivation to do…


Component 2b:  Establishing a Culture for Learning

  • Importance of the content
  • Expectations for learning and achievement
  • Student pride in work

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Evidence must be in the classroom – the look of the room, student work displayed (scored or rated with written feedback); nature of the interactions and tone of conversations with and among students reflect they are interested in and value learning and hard work.


Component 2c:  Managing classroom Procedures

  • Management of instructional groups
  • Management of transitions
  • Management of materials and supplies
  • Performance of noninstructional duties
  • Supervision of volunteers and paraprofessionals

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Evidence in the classroom – teacher explains, re-teaches and implements procedures
  • Procedures are posted in the classroom, communicated in writing to students and families early in the year (normally, the first day of school is used to communicate procedures).
  • If working in co-teaching or collaborative models, each person is appropriately utilized with ease of transition from person to person


Component 2d:  Managing Student Behavior

  • Expectations
  • Monitoring of student behavior
  • Response to student misbehavior

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Age appropriate and culturally consistent standards
  • Rules are made clear to all and are posted in the classroom
  • Rules are clearly and consistently applied (no favoritism is evident)
  • “Withitness” is apparent in that the teacher is always aware or what is going on and uses this awareness to influence student behavior through redirection and proximity
  • Teacher does not lose temper or composure; students do not fear verbal or physical attack
  • Chastisement focuses on behavior, not student as a person
  • Classroom rhythm is only minimally disrupted; student dignity is maintained
  • Teacher encourages students to monitor their own behavior
  • Student behavior reflects what teachers has done to establish and maintain standards
  • Preventive and intervening strategies are appropriately applied


Component 2e:  Organizing Physical Space

  • Safety and accessibility
  • Arrangement of furniture and use of physical resources

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Spaces for reading, quiet and noisy activities are provided
  • Furniture arrangement is appropriate for large and small group activities
  • Centers for exploration of content in the form of labs, circles, etc.
  • Safety is evident; no bags, trash, clothing, etc.; aisles between desks, tables, etc. provide good traffic flow; school-wide procedures for emergency exiting or lockdown are provided.
  • Materials are accessible; teaching aids, boards, charts, projectors/computers are skillfully positioned and utilized
  • Transparencies/TV, board work, posters, etc. are neat and clear for reading; high quality power points and videos are evident and content appropriate.
  • Appropriate use of technology is evident
  • Students are involved in supporting an organized, safe classroom through assisting with transitions, equipment, materials and supplies







Domain 3:  Instruction


Component 3a:  Communicating with Students

  • Expectations for learning
  • Directions and procedures
  • Explanations of content
  • Use of oral and written language

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Clear directions and explanations (oral and written)
  • Vivid, expressive language is used to enhance student experience
  • Clear limits are set,, including time factors
  • Language is audible, legible; correct usage, spelling, etc. is apparent
  • Teacher carefully chooses words, using rich vocabulary for students to model


Component 3b:  Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques

  • Quality of questions
  • Discussion techniques
  • Student participation

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Essential question is posted for each lesson; question is asked by teacher and answered by students throughout the lesson
  • Questions engage students in an exploration of content, are not rapid fire, low level, recitation of facts
  • “Think time” is allowed before responses
  • Teacher probes to seek clarification, i.e. “explain….”, “give an explanation for…”
  • All students are engaged in discussion; not just a few, students often take initiative
  • Teacher stays on topic, uses follow-up, rephrases and applies what students contribute or pose


Component 3c:  Engaging Students in Learning

  • Activities and assignments
  • Grouping of students
  • Instructional materials and resources
  • Structure and pacing

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Instructional artifacts – student work, out of class assignments
  • Teachers uses of examples and metaphors that illustrate new learning; teacher connects with student knowledge, interests and culture
  • Teacher promotes problem-solving; permits choice, encourages depth-find patterns, tests hypotheses, requires thought; is relevant and authentic
  • Groupings are based on instructional goals
  • Materials and resources are ready for student use with little or no disruption
  • Structure of lesson is maintained; pacing is appropriate with a beginning, a middle, and end (closure)


Component 3d:  Using Assessment in Instruction

  • Assessment criteria
  • Monitoring of student learning
  • Feedback to students
  • Student self-assessment and monitoring of progress

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Teacher and peer comments on student work
  • Teacher uses body language such as nods, quizzical looks, etc. to encourage students
  • Effective feedback that is specific, descriptive, understandable; Feedback is not praise (“good work” or “good job), grades, encouragement (“Keep it up” or “You can do it) or criticism (“Unacceptable…You get a zero”)
  • Comments give students information needed to adjust what they are doing and get better at it or solve a problem; it provides time to think and reflect; performance is related to standards
  • All feedback is provided in a timely fashion, “on the spot”, or on work products, as needed to support learning


Component 3e:  Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness

  • Lesson adjustment
  • Response to students
  • Persistence

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Adjustments that improve student experience or clarify confusion
  • Change provides for needs specific learners (visual, auditory, slower, brighter, etc.)
  • Teacher abandons lesson all together or coordinates with a spontaneous event
  • Teacher possesses an extensive repertoire of strategies such that transitions are seamless; students may not be aware that a change has occurred
















Domain 4:  Professional Responsibilities


Component 4a:  Reflecting on Teaching

  • Accuracy
  • Use in future teaching

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Examine reflection notations and logs
  • Conduct professional reflective conversations during post observation conferences, i.e. “Tell me how you felt about the lesson.”, “What were you observing during your teaching?”, “Can you tell me what was different about yesterday’s lesson?”
  • Model the practice that recognizes how we can all improve



Component 4b:  Maintaining Accurate Records

  • Student completion of assignments
  • Student progress in learning
  • Noninstructional records

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Examine organization and management of the portfolio, grade book or database
  • Look at how paperwork is maintained, i.e. worksheets, tests, records of “homeroom” tasks, permission slips, lunch, classroom inventories and reports.


Component 4c:  Communicating with Families

  • Information about the instructional program
  • Information about individual students
  • Engagement of families in the instructional program

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Family contact logs with consistent phone calls, emails, letters home, etc. to all students when appropriated and to specific students, as needed
  • Use of bulk contact formats such as class newsletter; post cards
  • Conference records
  • Notations in student agendas
  • Parental responses to students inventories


Component 4d:  Participating in a Professional Community

  • Relationships with colleagues
  • Involvement in a culture of professional inquiry
  • Service to the school
  • Participation in school and district projects

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Evidence of support and cooperation, volunteering for school committees and extra-curricular responsibilities
  • Chairing committees, teams, etc. or coordinating programs
  • Movement beyond one’s own classroom


Component 4e:  Growing and Developing Professionally

  • Enhancement of content knowledge and pedagogical skill
  • Receptivity to feedback from colleagues
  • Service to the profession

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • The teacher voluntarily examines and shares research on class performance and best practice strategies
  • Takes leadership roles; coordinators study groups, professional book clubs
  • Subscribes to professional/trade journals
  • Attends professional conferences and shares with colleagues upon return


Component 4f:  Showing Professionalism

  • Integrity and ethical conduct
  • Service to students
  • Advocacy
  • Decision making
  • Compliance with school and district regulations

Look Fors and Listen Fors:

  • Daily interactions with students
  • Helpfulness for needy students
  • Advocates for underserved students
  • Is open-minded and willing to adopt new approaches
  • Uses data to support actions
  • Sets long-term goals and takes responsibility for own professional growth
  • Demonstrates high ethical standards through compliance with school/district codes and community expectations


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