INTERNATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL AT UNION SQUARE
Gaylea Prichard-Silvers, PRINCIPAL
40 IRVING PLACE, NEW YORK, NY 10003
Youth Body Conditioning
The great appeal of lifetime fitness makes a ready motivation for skills improvement. Body conditioning has grown to be one of the largest fitness and lifetime skills movements in the United States.
It is expected that our youths will not only learn how to get fit, they will gain self-confidence, learn to concentrate better which helps them to be more organized with their academic studies.
- To develop basic skills in the fundamental life time fitness area.
- To develop personal satisfaction by increasing lean body mass.
- To learn self-discipline and respect for others.
- To learn important health benefits and it’s application, for improvement in mental and physical conditioning.
- To develop physical fitness as a value of special body conditioning exercise skills.
- To develop spiritual awareness for heightened enjoyment of social interaction.
- To develop ability to lead and to follow.
- To be able to exercise independently and make use of worthy leisure time.
- To teach good sportsmanship.
- The ultimate goal of losing weight and gaining muscle definition.
- Participation in fitness seminars while enjoying the benefits of being healthy.
This is a requirement for good health and designed to teach our youths the basic skills and benefits of body conditioning and to teach them also some features of a lifetime fitness program.
Each week will include: instructional objectives, incorporating English language to make use of vocabulary as it relates to a participants sport of choice, terms, quizzes and final summary. And by devoting a portion of the lesson to vocabulary, this manual is helping to reinforce the schools goal of improving the language arts skills and math skills of their students.
Copyright by Allen Spindel………………………………………………2013
WEEK ONE: Introduction to stretches, identification of muscles and iron man contest (body conditioning consisting of push ups, sit ups, squats/lunges and calf raises).
These benefits will positively affect all aspects of your life. One of the most noticeable benefits is an increase in academic achievement. *
*Roy J. Shephard, Pediatric Exercise Science, 1997. Piaget’s hypothesis, which says that the skills of spatial organization required for active play carry over into an understanding of the spatial confirmations and relationships that comprise words and mathematical relationships; possibly, the neural activity associated with motor learning enhances the development of interneuronal connections.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to understand the nature of the benefits of stretching as a warm up and exercises involving all parts of the body for lifetime fitness and health.
Types of Stretching
Dynamic Stretching (the ability to perform dynamic movements within a full range of motion in the joints).
Dynamic stretching involves moving parts of your body slowly and gradually increasing the speed and reach of the movement, or both. Perform your exercises (leg raises, arm swings) of 8-10 reps with 3-5 sets. The best way to practice dynamic stretches is to train your nervous system to have maximal speed at the moment of contact. Place your hand out in an extended position and touch your limb to your hand. Stop the momentum close (inches away) to the maximal reach of this movement. The key to dynamic stretching is the ability to combine the contraction of the moving muscles with the relaxing of the extended muscles. (Concentric and eccentric, or opposing muscles) Dynamic stretching improves elasticity of the muscles, ligaments and joints. Don’t throw your limbs, but lift them using your muscles as you contract or tighten them. The goal in dynamic stretching is to stretch 75% of your maximum stretch. In other words, you are only working at ¾ of your maximum speed. This is why it is a warm up, not a full workout.
Static Active Flexibility Exercises (lifting your limbs into a stretch and holding it there for 3-5 seconds.) The muscle opposite the muscle being worked helps to hold your leg in the air. The tension of these muscles opposite the muscle being worked is relaxed, which allows for the muscle being worked to tighten and hold the leg in place. You have to learn how to relax the stretched muscles and you have to build up the strength of the muscles opposite them, so that parts of your body can be held in extended positions.
Isometric Stretching or Static Passive, using the same exercises in static active stretching but by adding the strong tensions (tightening) of the stretched muscles, you can cause your muscles to relax and increase in the stretch. When you have reached your maximal stretch, then you should hold the last tension for up to 30 seconds or more. This increases the strength of the muscles in this position. You can use these exercises as a cool down after dynamic exercises.
|IRON MAN WORK-OUT|
|Goal Setting Key|
Iron man routine consisting of push-ups, sit-ups, front squats/lunges and calf raises. 5 sets and 10 Reps introductory performance 10 sets and 10 reps average performance 12 sets and 12 reps best performance 14 sets and 14 reps challenging performance 16 sets and 16 reps upper performance Point System Point ValueAction/Performance
5 days of upper performance
3 days of upper performance
2 days of challenging
1 day of any performance
|16 Week Cycle|
Low Score The goal is to accumulate as many points as possible and compare your score.
Concentric Muscle Actions- occurs when the total tension developed in all the cross-bridges of a muscle is sufficient to overcome any resistance to shortening.
Isometric Muscle Actions- occurs when the tension in the cross-bridges equals the resistance to shortening, and the muscle length remains relatively constant.
Eccentric Muscle Actions- occurs when the tension developed in the cross-bridges is less than the external resistance, and the muscle lengthens despite contact between myosin cross-bridge heads and the actin filaments.
Agonist prime mover-responsible for joint action movement.
Antagonist opposing muscle to prime mover-lengthens and shortens for motion.
Synergist any muscle that assists the prime mover-agonist.
Medial close to midline
Lateral away from midline
Isometric fiber DOES NOT change length and NO joint angle change.
Isotonic muscle fibers change length and joint angle changes.
Sagital plane right left.
Frontal plane front back.
Horizontal upper lower.
Flexion decrease joint angle.
Extension increase joint angle.
Abduction away from midline.
Adduction toward midline.
Rotation movement around an axis.
Circumduction multiplanar 360% rotations.
Prone palm down
Supine palm up
Pectoralis major Infraspinatus
Biceps brachii Teres major
Rectus abdominus Triceps brachii
Brachialis Latissimus dorsi External oblique Finger extensiors
Finger flexors Gluteus maximus
Adductor longus Semitendinosus
Gracilis Biceps Femoris
Rectus femoris Gastrocnemius
Vastus medialis Soleus
Design Stretching Routine:
- To teach safety and spotting procedures.
- To teach the use of all equipment in the gym
- Continuation of the iron man contest.
- Learn material on quiz #1.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to understand safety and the use of all equipment while understanding it’s practical application.
Breathing- In through the nose and out through the mouth.
Athletic Stance- When performing any exercise, be conscious of body alignment and posture. Stand tall; yet keep posture relaxed, not tense. Imagine a “midline” running from the top of our heads down through the middle of the body. Keep body weight balanced and evenly distributed in relation to this imaginary midline. Abdominal muscles should be contracted with your rib cage lifted so pelvis is in a neutral alignment with your tailbone pointing down. Shoulders are back and relaxed. Do not hyperextend your knees, or elbow joint. Hyperextension places excess stress on ligaments and tendons that attach at each joint, increasing potential for injury as well as decreasing the effectiveness of stretching or strengthening activities.
1. What is the name of the largest muscle in the entire body?
2. What is the name of the muscle opposite the largest muscle in the entire body?
- Hung ups
3. What is the name of the largest muscle in the upper body?
- Pectoralis major
4. Where is the Gluteus Maximus located on the body?
- The hips
- The lower legs
- Directly above the hamstring muscle (the butt)
- Under the rib cage
5. When lifting weights, should you lock your joints as you extend your limbs or extend your limbs just before you lock them?
- Lock your joints as you extend your limbs
- Extend your limbs fully, just before you lock them
6. What is the proper way to breathe as you lift the weight and then let it down?
- Breathing fast as you lift the weights
- Breathing slow as you lift the weights
- Breathing in through your mouth and out through your nose
- Breathing out through your mouth and in through your nose
7. The proper count when you lift weights is?
- One-two on the up and one-two on the way down
- One-two on the exertion and one-two-three on the release
- One-two on the exertion and one-two-three-four on the release
- One-two-three-four on the exertion and one-two on the release
8. You should always stretch and warm-up before a workout because?
- The teacher needs time to take attendance
- The teacher needs time to plan the lesson
- You need to relax before you workout
- You need to have your body temperature raised 1 degree prior to lifting to prevent injury
9. When lifting weights, it is best to fully extend your joints and lock them out?
10. When using the three Olympic Bench Press stations, the proper way to spot is by using?
A. Over under grip
- Two hand over grip
- Two hand under grip
13. When performing the bench press, chest press or shoulder press, you
should lower the bar so your elbows position themselves at what angle? This will prevent your shoulder from tearing or injuring the rotator cuff.
A. 45% angle
- 90% angle
- 180% angle
14. When performing the leg press, you should lower the machine so your knees position themselves at what angle? This prevents your knee from over extending and causing a tear.
A. 45% angle
- 90% angle
- 180% angle
Bonus Question: There are single joint and multi joint exercises. What is the definition of:
Single joint exercise:
When only one joint moves during the exercise such as the elbow joint in the bicep curl.
Multi joint exercise:
When two or more joints move during the exercise such as the elbow and shoulder joint in a push up, chest press or military press.
Design Iron Man Routine:
1. To teach incorporating the monitoring of your maximum heart rate and training heart rate during exercising.
2. To teach the joint actions for the chest and back.
3. To have the class practice and demonstrate several types of exercises while understanding these joint actions.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to design their own work outs using the chest and back muscles in accordance with proper technique and understanding of how those muscles function.
How To Take Your Heart Rate
The 10 Second Count
Age 60% 70% 80% 90%
17 20 23 27 30
45 17 20 23 26
These numbers represent the pulse per 10-second count for various workout levels ranging from 60% which is considered a mild workout to 90% which is considered working out at the top level.
The long formula for obtaining age 17, working at 60% of maximum heart rate is:
Step 1. find your maximum heart rate for your age by taking 220 – your age = 203.
Step 2. take that number and multiply it by the level you want to work at: 203 x 60% = 121.80.
Step 3. take 121.80 beats per minute and divide it by 6 to get the 10-second count of 20.
This is the easiest way during a workout to monitor how you are performing.
Resting Heart Rate- the average resting heart rate for men is 72-78 beats per minute, and for women, 78-84 beats per minute (bpm). The better shape you are in, the lower your resting heart rate (RHR) will be. Take your pulse for three mornings in a row as soon as you wake up. Don’t get out of bed. Take it just as your eyes open before you start to move. Average the three morning numbers and that is your resting heart rate.
Maximum Heart Rate- is the theoretical maximum number of times your heart can beat for your age. It is based on the maximum heart rate (MHR) of a baby at birth. The 220 is a constant and never changes when you calculate it. Take your age, 17 and subtract it from 220 and you get 203. That is your maximum heart rate for a 17 year old. Never workout beyond your maximum heart rate!
Training Heart Rate- this provides you with a guide to see how hard you are working out and to see if you should increase or decrease your activity. To find your training heart rate range (THRR), subtract your age from the constant of 220 and divide by 60% or whatever percent of your maximum heart rate you want to work out at. 220-17 = 203.
203 x 60% = 121.80. This is called your training heart rate range, your zone or your target heart rate during an aerobic activity such as running, biking, Stairmaster or basketball drills.
The fastest and easiest way to find your training heart rate during a workout is to take a 10-second count.
Find your maximum heart rate for your age by taking 220 – your age = 203.
Take that number and multiply it by the level you want to work out, 203 x 60% = 121.80.
Take 121.80 beats per minute and divide it by 6 to get the 10-second count of 20.
Monitor your heart rate during exercise at 3 different times. The first time should be 5 minutes after the workout begins. The second time should be when you have finished the highest level or hardest part of your workout. The third time should be when you have finished your workout and you are cooling down.
Recovery Heart Rate- this can tell you how good of shape you are in by the speed at which your heart rate returns to where it was before you began working out. Take your recovery heart rate 5 minutes after you cool down. It should be 60% or less of your maximum heart rate. So, in the example above, it should be below 121.80 beats per minute or below 20 using a 10-second count
EXERCISE MUSCLE JOINT ACTION
Barbell bench press pectoralis major shoulder adduction
Anterior deltoid elbow extension
Pulley seated row mid traps scapula adduction
Posterior deltoid shoulder abduction
Biceps elbow flexion
Shrugs upper traps shoulder girth elevation
Pull downs lats shoulder adduction
Biceps elbow flexion
Back extension erector spinae spinal
Three ways of using the bench for chest exercises.
Design Chest and Back Routine:
- To teach the muscle conditioning exercise.
- To teach the joint action for shoulder and arms.
3. To have the class practice demonstrate several types of exercises while understanding these joint actions.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to design their own work outs using the shoulder and arms in accordance with proper technique and understanding of how those muscles function.
MUSCLE CONDITIONING EXERCISES
Elbow joint- bicep curl, triceps kickback, lat pull-down.
Shoulder joint- bent arm row, lateral raise, front raise, overhead military press, and shoulder shrug and push-ups.
Trunk or spine- abdominal curl and crunch, cross curl twist and spinal extension.
Hip joint- squats, lunges, outer thigh, pelvic tilt, reverse hip lift and inner thigh.
Knee joints- leg extension, hamstring curls.
Ankle joint- heel raise, toe raise.
EXERCISE MUSCLE JOINT ACTION
Military press deltoid shoulder abduction
Triceps elbow extension
Lateral raise deltoid shoulder abduction
Bicep curls bicep elbow flexion
Triceps kickbacks triceps elbow extension
Design Shoulders and Arms Routine:
- To teach the complete terminology of body conditioning.
- To teach the joint action for the lower body.
3. To have the class practice and demonstrate several types of exercises while understanding these joint actions.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to design their own work outs using the lower body muscles in accordance with proper technique and understanding of how those muscles function. Students will be able to converse in a professional manor using complete terminology in relation to body conditioning.
Terminology of Body Conditioning
Abduction- movement away from the midline of the body.
Adduction- movement toward the midline of the body.
Aerobic- with oxygen, or in the presence of oxygen.
Agonist- a muscle that is a prime mover, directly responsible for a particular action.
Anaerobic- requiring no oxygen, usually short spurts, high energy activities.
Antagonist- a muscle that acts in opposition to the action produced by a prime mover.
Anterior- front side of an organ or part of the body.
Artery- large vessels with middle smooth muscle layer that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart.
Atrophy- a reduction in size or wasting away of any organ cell or muscle.
Blood pooling- a condition caused by ceasing vigorous exercise too abruptly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain.
Concentric- movement in which the muscle shortens.
Distal- end of any body part that is further from the midline of the body.
Dorsal- pertaining to the back.
Eccentric- muscle lengthens while contracting.
Eversion- rotation of the foot, turning the sole outward.
Extension- a motion of increasing the angle between two bones, straightening of a muscle previously bent in flexion.
Flexion- bending of a joint between two bones that decreases the angle between the two bones.
Frontal- a plane, vertical to the median line that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Hyperextenion- to increase the angle of a joint past the normal range of motion.
Hypertrophy- increase in size of tissue, organ or cell, independent of general body growth.
Inversion- to turn inward.
Isokinetic- contraction in which the tension developed by the muscle while shortening at a constant speed is maximal over the full range of motion.
Isometric- movement against an immovable force, static, a muscle contraction in which the tension increases but the muscle length remains the same.
Isotonic- a contraction in which a muscle shortens against a force, resulting in movement and performance work, also referred to as a dynamic or concentric contraction.
Lactic acid- the byproduct of anaerobic metabolism of glucose or glycogen in muscle.
Medial- toward the midline of the body.
Muscular endurance- the ability to perform repetitive work over a prolonged period of time.
Periodization training- cyclic training that rotates specific workout components throughout various periods of a training program.
Plyometrics- a form of training that uses fast eccentric contractions followed by concentric contractions to increase muscular power.
Pronation- shifting the body weight to the inside of the foot.
Radial pulse- pulse found on the inside of the wrist on the thumb side near the wrist bone.
RICE- immediate injury treatment: rest, ice, compress, elevate.
ROM- range of motion.
Sagittal- plane that divides the body into right and left parts.
Strength- maximum force or tension that a muscle or muscle group can produce against resistance.
Supination- shifting the body weight to the outside of the foot
Transverse- plane that divides the body into upper and lower halves.
EXERCISE MUSCLE JOINT ACTION
Squat hamstring hip flexor
Glutes knee extension
Leg extension quads knee extension
Leg curls hamstring knee flexion
Calf raise gastrocnemius plantar flexion
Toe raise tibialis anterior dorsi flexion
Design Lower Body Routine:
Quiz on all terms and muscle and skeleton chart
- To teach the muscle and joint action of the total body.
2. To have the class demonstrate these skills by successfully completing a quiz.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to understand all the muscles and related joint actions so they can design a total body workout and converse in a professional manor using complete terminology in relation to body conditioning.
Muscle and joint action
Pectoralis major-mid trapezius
Rectus abdominus-errector spinea
Right oblique-left oblique
Ilopsoas-gluts and hamstring
Hip abductor-hip adductor
Tibialis anterior-gastrocnemius Hip abductor-hip adductor
Quiz on muscle and joint action
Quiz on total body workout using correct terminology
- To teach the benefits of single leg training.
- To administer a comprehensive mid term exam successfully.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to understand and perform the benefits of single leg training as it relates to proprioception and sport specific training. To demonstrate a comprehensive skill and learned knowledge in body conditioning.
Single Leg Training
Single leg training works the leg much differently than using both legs. The muscles surrounding the knees must work harder because there is less stabilization when performing single leg exercises. This causes more muscles surrounding the knee to come to the rescue, (more muscle recruitment) and therefore, works the leg smarter. You use less resistance, less reps and less sets to get the same results when using two legs. In addition, single leg training forces the muscles surrounding the knee to work 360%’s of freedom and ground reaction forces. In other words, the muscles work at a higher level during contraction (concentric), at midpoint while not moving (isometric) and when the muscles lengthen (eccentric).
You don’t need to develop large muscles (hypertrophy) in your legs. You need to develop unilateral biased lower extremity strength. Single leg training should include multi joints while performing dynamic and multiplanar stabilization.
If you are working on training for sports involved in running, jumping or quick changes of direction, then do single leg presses, lungs, and step-ups to begin with. Add single leg dumbbell squats, anterior reaches on one leg and inverted foot position on a wobble board while performing a single leg squat. Include different angles such as applying resistance while the foot, knee and hips are loading (pronation, shifting the body weight to the inside of the foot) or unloading (supination, shifting the body weight to the outside of the foot) in all planes of motion.
Work on Proprioceptive stabilization (the leg being worked controls the force when the muscles are contracting (concentric), at midpoint while not moving (isometric) and when the lengthening (eccentric) between loading (pronation, shifting the body weight to the inside of the foot) or unloading (supination, shifting the body weight to the outside of the foot)
It is best to use lighter loads and perform high training intensity (more repetitions). You’re athletic and sports career will have longevity, which will enhance your performance.
Iron man math
Angles and degrees
3 types of benches
Heart rate math
All joint actions
All muscles and skeleton charts
- To teach plyometric training for sport specific conditioning.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to perform a series of complicated exercises that relate to their sport and design their own plyometric routine.
A few benefits of plyometrics are:
- Decrease 40 yard dash time .2 to .4 seconds
- Increase acceleration, quickness, and agility
- Increase first step explosion
- Increase ability to change direction and footwork
- Increase anaerobic conditioning
“The vertical jump and speed program increased my vertical jump 7 inches from a 33 inch vertical to a 40 inch vertical jump after just 7 workouts!!! The speed program decreased my 40 yard dash time to a 4.49 from a 4.76 after just three weeks!! Your program helped me impress NFL scouts and I was picked up by the Cincinnatti Bengals as a free agent from The College of William and Mary. Thanks for making my dream become a reality.”
Chris Rosier WR Williamsburg, VA
What are Plyometrics
Plyometrics are exercises that will enhance explosive power by using a method called the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). The stretch part of the SSC is the eccentric muscle action and the shortening part of the SSC is the concentric muscle action. Elastic energy is stored in the tendomuscular system when the muscles stretch during the eccentric action. If the shortening concentric action happens immediately, literally with no waiting time, the muscles use the stored elastic energy with the normal voluntary tension to give you a more forceful contraction, which gives you an increase in vertical jump height. To make use of the stored elastic energy in the muscular system, effective plyometric exercises should be done with no delay between eccentric and concentric actions and increasing the speed of the eccentric action. In other words, bend 6-8 inches and immediately jump up with literally no waiting time between the bend and the jump up. The faster you jump up right after the bend, the more effective the plyometric exercise is. Keep in mind you can use plyometric exercises on any part of your body such as your arms, stomach, back, etc.
Beginners should practice plyometric exercises using 8 reps and 3 sets. Only perform 3-4 exercises during the work out. That means no more than 75-100 (8 x 3 = 24 x 4 = 96) total movements per day and make sure to rest 48 hours between plyometric sessions.
Designing sport specific plyometric exercises
Side to side
Using specific equipment
Harness and bungee cord
- To teach the medicine ball for sport specific conditioning.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to perform a series of complicated exercises that relate to their sport and design their own medicine ball routine.
Stepping forward chest pass
Stepping backward up press
Stepping 45% front and back alternate chest pass and up press
Side step chest pass
Front lunge chest pass
Rear lunge up press
45% front and rear lunge alternate chest pass and up press
Knees bent sit up and chest pass
Knees bent sit up and twist pass
Sitting lotus twist side to side, touch floor
Squat and touch floor, stand up and lean back, ball overhead
Squat and touch floor, stand up and twist side to side
Straight leg touch, ball over head
Push Ups on Medicine Ball
Two hands plyometric
One hand plyometric
Drop Chest Pass
Overhead under pass
To teach the benefits of Core training as it relates to improving athletic conditioning and is necessary for increasing performance in all sports.
Upon completion of instruction, students will be able to perform a series of core exercises and design their own routines using abdominal and lower back exercises.
Core training develops the muscles surrounding the middle of our bodies. Like the center of a giant ball of string, the core is wrapped extremely tight. The core in our bodies consists of the abdominal muscles, (upper, lower, left and right sides) and our lower back. If these muscles are weak, the outer connecting extremities of our bodies such as our chest, legs, arms and ankles will not be able to perform the movements the way we want them to. So, core development is important in all sports. Especially if you are training for speed, fast start-stop movements and quick change of directions. A strong core will allow you to out perform your opponent and also prevent you from becoming injured during your training sessions. One of the best examples of core development can be seen in soccer players. Imagine a soccer player getting ready for a head butt. He/she leans the head back, flexes the spine, which uses the lower back (contracting the lower back muscles and relaxing the abdominal muscles) and immediately reversing the motion (contracting the abdominal muscles and relaxing the lower back muscles). If those muscles are weak, the soccer player will not head butt the ball very far and in fact may get inured.
Pulse up and twist
Straight leg lift
Legs up pulse up
Legs up pulse and twist
Legs up hips up
Torture rack crunch
Alternate arms and legs
Partner holds legs
Stabilize for 30 seconds
- To introduce partner training.
- To introduce yoga for internal power.
Upon completion of instruction, students will learn the basic concepts of partner training as it related to intermediate body conditioning activities for lifetime fun and fitness. Students will also understand and be able to practice yoga, which develops internal lifetime health benefits, and super power for performing fitness related techniques.
Partner training allows for one person to motivate another through verbal, physical and emotional support. If one person gets tired, the other can “push” his/her partner to complete the workout. Partner training also helps prevent boredom, which allows you to workout longer and harder. Partner trainer also helps with safety issues. If one person cannot lift a certain amount of weight by themselves after the 10th repetition, the partner can gently assist with supporting the weight or support the body part such as the arms, elbows, etc. Partner training is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed in any sport, physical activity anywhere and anytime.
Examples of partner training are:
Bench Press- spotting the bar and spotting under the elbows.
Military Press- spotting under the elbows.
Bicep Curls- spotting behind while assisting just above the elbow near the forearm and making sure there is no rocking of the body.
Triceps – spotting to make sure the elbows are close to the head when performing a press, supporting the elbow to make sure it is at a 90% angle on the kick back.
Posterior Deltoid Fly- making sure the arms are at a 90% angle and that the rhomboids are fully contracted by placing your fist between them.
Anterior Lift-making sure the arms are not lifted above the shoulder and there is no rocking of the body.
Abdominal- holding the legs or feet secure while the partner executes the lift.
Lower Back- holding the legs or feet secure while the partner executes the lift
Yoga is a method of exercising that incorporates breathing, stretching, tightening and relaxing of the muscles along with balance. It is said that you can practice yoga every day until you die. There is no age limit or any physical fitness ability required to start a yoga program. In addition, yoga will clear your mind, relax your mind and make your mind more aware of your surroundings, which can increase concentration.
“While we practice conscious breathing, our thinking will slow down, and we can give ourselves a real rest. Most of the time, we think too much, and mindful breathing helps us to be calm, relaxed, and peaceful. It helps us to stop thinking so much and stop being possessed by sorrows of the past and worries about the future. It enables us to be in touch with life, which is wonderful in the present moment.” THICH NHAT HANH
A few yoga positions to practice for 5-7 minutes a day.
The Sun Salutations
Sun Salutation A- Surya Namaskara A
Sun Salutation B- Surya Namaskara B
Big Toe Posture
Hand Under Foot Posture
Extended Triangle Posture
Revolved Triangle Posture
Extended Side Angle Posture
Expanded Leg Intense Stretch
Intense Side Stretch Posture
Extended Hand to Big Toe Posture
Standing Bound Half Lotus
Warrior 1 Posture
Warrior 2 Posture
- To introduce anatomy as a means to understanding the body.
Upon completion of instruction, students will understand the use of terms and body parts as it related to the body and understand what exercises work each muscle.
Fast Twitch Fibers- it can develop force very quickly. It also burns out very quickly. They are designed for sprinters and power lifters who lift heavy weights one time during a competition.
Slow Twitch Fibers- it can develop force slowly. It has a longer twitch time and burns out slower. They are designed for aerobic energy such as long distance runners, boxing matches that go 15 rounds and full court basketball games.
Pectoralis Major- the largest muscle in the upper body and runs from the middle of your chest (sternum) through the pecs, touches clavicle (collar bone), connects with the anterior deltoid, runs down the humerus bone (front of bicep) and finishes there. The pecs work best when the arms finish in an extended position and are closed over the sternum. This is called contracted.
Biceps Brachii- is two muscles that lay on top of each other. The top part of the muscle is shorter and the under part is longer. If you want large biceps, work on exercises that develop the under part of the bicep such as hammer curls and reverse curls. The biceps work best when the muscle is shortened or contracted in a concentric movement.
Brachialis- a muscle right next to the biceps that are located in the crease of the arm. Same as biceps.
Brachioradialis-a muscle (near your forearm) that is right below the brachialis and can be worked by performing hammer curls and reverse curls. Same as biceps.
Triceps Brachii- is three muscles side by side and connects to the posterior deltoid. The triceps work best when the muscle is lengthened (extension) in an eccentric movement.
Rhomboid Major- located on the back and is responsible for maintaining good posture.
Trapezius- the muscle that runs between your shoulder and neck.
Deltoids- there is 3 deltoid muscles. The front is called anterior, the middle is called medial and the back is called posterior.
Latissimus Dorsi- the muscle known as the “wings.”
Rectus Abdominis- the “8 pack” that we all talk about runs under the pecs down to the pelvic area.
External Oblique- the “love handles” located on the sides of the body that connect to the rectus abdominis and allow movement side to side.
Quadriceps- the largest muscle in the body, which has 4 muscles running from the top of the thigh into the knee. The 4 muscles are Sartorius, Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis and Vastus lateralis. The quads work best when the muscle is lengthened (extension) in an eccentric movement.
Gluteus Maximus- the large muscle in the “butt” area that connects to the hamstring and is responsible for power movements.
Hamstring- has 3 muscles that run from the bottom of the butt (Gluteus Maximus) into the back of the knee. The 3 muscles are Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus. The hamstring work best when the muscle is shortened (flexion) in a concentric movement.
Gastrocnemius- the muscle located in the calf area. It has two muscles side by side.
Tibialis Anterior- the muscle located in the shin area. It works opposite the gastrocnemius.
Soleus- the muscle below the calf and above the heel.
- To teach the basic concept of nutrition.
Upon completion, students will learn how to eat properly, how to prepare foods for energy and maintain a healthy life style based on their individual goals.
Proper nutrition is important to an athlete who wants to maximize their performance. Keeping in mind that different levels of athletic activity require different types of diets. There are some basic guidelines to follow. The food guide is the best way to determine your needs based on your activity. As a general rule, the more active you are, the more bread, cereal, rice and pasta your body requires. The less active you are, focus more on the fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry and fish groups.
The food guide pyramid classifies foods into five groups:
Bread, cereal, rice and pasta.
Milk, yogurt and cheese.
Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs and nuts.
Bread, cereal, rice and pasta. 6-11 servings per day
Fruit. 2-4 servings per day
Vegetables. 3-5 servings per day
Milk, yogurt and cheese. 2-3 servings per day
Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs and nuts. 2-3 servings per day
Fats, oils and sweets. Use sparingly
Protein has an important role in strength and conditioning. It is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Protein also contains nitrogen. Protein in the human body is composed of 20 amino acids. The human body can synthesize more than half of the 20 amino acids and they don’t need to be consumed in our daily diets. Nine of the amino acids are essential because our bodies cannot manufacture them and therefore we must eat certain foods that contain those nine essential amino acids.
Based on current research, athletes need between 1.5 and 2.0 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight.
Carbohydrates play an important role in creating energy for athletes. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates have three groups according to the amount of sugar in them. The three groups are monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides- are single sugar molecules such as glucose, fructose and galactose.
Disaccharides- are two sugar molecules such as sucrose, lactose and maltose.
Polysaccharides- known as complex carbohydrates, have up to thousands of glucose units. This is the best type of carbohydrate since glucose turns into energy throughout the day, last the longest and gives the athlete the most energy for the longest period of time. Try and focus on foods that contain complex carbohydrates such as brown rice, whole wheat bread, bran, oat bran, barley, apples and sweet potatoes.
Milk, yogurt, cheese
Meat, poultry, fish, eggs
Dry beans, nuts
Bread, cereal, rice and pasta group
Food guide pyramid
- To teach students the three types of advanced weight training
Upon completion, students will understand how to choose which of the three types of weight training they want to focus on for their particular needs. Strength, hypertrophy or muscle endurance.
You use a high level of resistance and a low level of repetitions. Basically, you perform these exercises at 80% of your maximum capacity and perform maybe 4-6 repetitions. You should rest for about 2 minutes between sets. This is called high intensity-low reps.
You are using more explosive or fast twitch fibers that burn out quickly but give you a quick burst of energy. This gives you an increase in lean body mass, which is one of the most important factors in determining maximum strength.
Muscle Size (hypertrophy)
This involves exercises that allow more repetitions (6-12) but heavy enough resistance to allow concentric and eccentric contraction failure (inability of the muscle to shorten or lengthen under control, or simply put-burn them out.) You should rest for between 30 seconds an one minute. The best results are gotten from performing 12-20 successive sets for one muscle group per day. In other words, work lets say the bicep for 12 repetitions, rest 30 seconds and perform 20 sets. You will see an increase in overall muscle size. This workout does give you some aerobic conditioning.
Muscular Endurance (using aerobic exercise)
In this type of exercise, you use lower resistance and high repetitions with very short rest, maybe 15-30 seconds between sets. It is called low intensity, high volume. You might use 10 lbs. of resistance while performing 20 repetitions and perform 3-6 sets.
The muscle is flooded with oxygen, which allows it to build endurance, and can be a great training program for any sport. The muscles do not grow in size; you won’t get bulky, what happens are you gained endurance for your sport or activity.
Actually, to perform at the maximum you possibly can, decide what your sport or activity is and then tailor a program based on the three types of training. For example, if you are playing football and are on the front line, you would want to train mostly in the strength area. If you were a basketball player, you would want to switch between the muscular endurance and muscle size, mostly with the muscular endurance.
1. To teach the students the basic concepts of Periodization.
Upon completion, students will learn how to schedule, plan and prepare for fitness events relating to their particular area of interest.
As you develop fitness endurance, there are times you will experience highs and lows, injury and maybe even over training. In order to make sure you can continue your lifetime fitness program, you should understand variations in training specificity, intensity and volume organized in planned cycles within your program. This is what we call “periodization.” You can take the entire year and break it down into smaller blocks of training time. Each block of training time has its own goals, depending on competition, weight loss, seasons, etc. The largest periodization time would be preparing for the next Olympics, maybe 3-4 years away. The shortest periodization time can be 2 weeks. What changes are the intensity (quality) and volume (quantity) assignments of each cycle?
Preparatory Transition Competition Transition
Period Period #1 Period Period #2
(Peaking) (Active Rest)
Preparatory Period- this is the longest time period, usually when there is no competitions. You are building a base of fitness and endurance. You work on low intensity and high volume, which builds lean, body mass and develops endurance. Later on in this phase, you build strength and power.
Transition Period #1- in this short time period, you begin to change to higher quality and lower the volume a little bit.
Competition Period- the goal during this period is to peak out your strength and power by increasing intensity and lowering volume. You should also work specifically on your skill level.
Transition Period #2- in this time period, you focus on unstructured, non-sport specific recreational activities and they are performed at low intensity and low volume. This prepares you for the next phase, which is starting over again at the preparatory period. This way, you are less likely to get injured from over training.
- Students will create and demonstrate their own body conditioning routine.
- To administer a comprehensive final exam successfully.
Upon completion, students will understand how to design their own body conditioning routine for themselves and be able to implement this for their lifetime fitness. In addition, students will be able to assist and instruct beginning students in the body conditioning gym. To demonstrate a comprehensive skill and learned knowledge in body conditioning.
Students will be evaluated on the basis of their individual daily work out sheets, the one rep max beginning and ending weight, their typed written Internet assignments and possibly a video presentation of their own body conditioning routine.
Upper Body Routine:
Lower Body Routine:
Comprehensive Final Exam:
Thomas Kurz, Stretching Scientifically.
Donald Chu, Jumping into Plyometrics.
Fitness Resource Association, Weight Training Certification.
Aerobic Fitness Association, Personal Training Certification.
National Strength and Conditioning Association, CSCS Certification.
Bill Foran, High Performance Sports Conditioning.
Jack H. Wilmore, Physiology of Sport and Exercise.
Oz Garcia, The Balance
Beryl Beringer, Power Yoga
Frederic Delaviee, Strength Training Anatomy